It is estimated that women worldwide spend more than $43 billion on fashion-related footwear per annum. It could be much more! A pair of Manolo Blahniks (made famous by the TV sitcom ‘Sex in the City’) can easily cost more than $500 a pair (2007). A one-off pair of designer Gucci Shoes is even more and may reach $6,000 or higher. ‘Celebrity Only – Hand-made’ shoes by London designer Jimmy Choo are alleged to be priced by negotiation only. A pair of regular retail boots sell for more than $800. The 43 billion dollar question is why? The answer lies in sexual attraction.
“US footwear, apparel brands and retailers continued to turn to imports to supply America’s seemingly insatiable appetite for shoes.” (American Apparel and Footwear Association 2007)
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Facial expressions are the foundations of body language. Some are instinctive and some are learned by watching others and then mimicking them. It’s a fact that children see the gestures used by their parents and copy them as natural behaviour.
As usual, scientists and researchers disagree on the exact number of basic facial expressions. Charles Darwin is recognised as publishing the first serious scientific study in 1872 and in his work “the Expression of Emotions in Man and Animals” he claims to have identified 13 that can be considered universal. These are: astonishment, shame, fear, horror, pride, hatred, wrath, love, joy, guilt, anxiety, shyness, and modesty.
It’s worth noting that many other people before Darwin appreciated the importance of facial expressions and their link to human emotions.
“Beauty without expression is boring.”
This was proposed by Ralph Waldo Emerson an American Poet, Lecturer and Essayist who lived between 1803-1882.
“Sweet babe, in thy face soft desires I can trace, secret joys and secret smiles, little pretty infant wiles” (From the poem Sleep! Sleep! Beauty Bright) This was written by William Blake an English visionary, Mystic, Poet, Painter and Engraver who lived between 1757-1827. He clearly understood the importance of facial expressions.